Lex Scholasticus Journal of Law and Socio-Economic Issues

Pakistan and China are in the front row of the nuclear assembly, leaving behind India

Mehak (Student, Chandigarh University)

Overview:

Why today is China increasing its nuclear weapons today, when all the nations are dismantling it? The clear cut answer is ‘intention’. The tension which has aroused on the Line of Actual Control, is pretty much visible to every citizen of all around the globe. Are we equipped enough with warheads?

All the nations including developed, developing and rooted one, are modernising with better nuclear technology not for the sake of the war but adding on in for positive growth also. As reported by the eminent Swedish Think Tank; that India and China are trying to increase their nuclear reserve and moreover China has successfully succeeded in this act.

Not only nuclear arsenal but missiles including new land, sea based and nuclear capable aircraft. India and Pakistan are not capable of increasing it promptly. According to the report China had gone up from 290 to 320 nuclear warheads in the year 2019 to 2020 respectively. But till 2020, India has got only 150 nuclear arsenal, which is pretty low as compared to Pakistan having an estimated 160 warheads in the year 2020.

Movements of the Nation:

Basically, there are nine nuclear states in the world. They are the U.S., Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. Observe the tragedy, that the dictator state of North Korea is having nuclear warheads but the democratic state which is the Republic of South Korea is not having a nuclear arsenal. More or less, in 2019 there are 13,400 and later on in 2020 there are 13,865. The fall in number is due to the dismantlement of nuclear warheads by the U.S. and Russia. They both together possess a total 90% of nuclear warheads.

Actually, there is no such reliable data available by any government which owns nuclear warheads; about their nuclear arsenal. We can see that in today's diplomatic society no state wants to reveal its power in any field including nuclear warheads. For example; India has a National Security Act, 1980 which talks about confidential data regarding security of state. In the same way Pakistan also has specific laws regarding this issue. In the past few years, we have seen that the U.S. has disclosed the important credentials but after 2019 with due regulation passed by the Congress of the U.S. they also put an end to this disclosure. But in the case of Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the honorable dictator used his nuclear power to showcase his supremacy. So he usually publicises its data on nuclear warheads.

In the year 2010, a landmark treaty was signed between the U.S. and Russia which has been named as New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty which is a pact about agreement to dismantlement of nuclear warheads. But the agreement will be null and void after February 2021. However, in a situation if both will agree then the time tenure of this treaty can be easily extended. According to many political scientists; firstly, the U.S. wants to increase this treaty to avoid the supremacy of Russia in nuclear power. Secondly, the U.S. and many more nations also want China to join this treaty to reduce its nuclear arsenal. Thirdly, Israel can also dominate in the nuclear field, so they also have to be there in the treaty partially.

Separately. India is also working on the same agenda of the dismantlement of nuclear warheads and this is totally correct according to the various suggestions of the International Court of Justice and United Nations Human Rights Council and the theories of the ideal states but what about diplomatic and military point of view?

Leaving the things apart there are some laws binding and non binding like Nonproliferation Treaty (Non Member State), The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (Member State), Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (Member State) which initiate the gearing up process of dismantlement of the nuclear warheads in Republic of India. Meanwhile, the Islamic State of Pakistan has no such treaties with them and the same goes to China as well. Following these treaties India has not such rapid growth in the production of nuclear warheads but the scenario is not the same in atomic energy. We have seen that India has dominated in Asia after China, in promoting the electricity generation with the help of nuclear power.

We have to establish this only, having a nuclear arsenal doesn't mean that you are a big brother. The idea of nuclear energy was regulated by the founding fathers of the nations for the right of defence and concentrating on the productive issues. That's why, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) located in Mumbai, India which was led by our former Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru works magnificently on productive management.

Conclusion; with progressive idea

1. Firstly, there should be a multilateral agreement in which all the nuclear states as well as spectator states will be a part of. The mentioned treaty will clearly say that; there should be limited nuclear warheads, modification will not reform it more draconian and violation of the terms quoted by the treaty will lead to hefty penalties.

2. Secondly, the simultaneous multilateral treaty will work on the dismantlement of nuclear warheads referring to the U.S., Russia and China.

3. Thirdly, in the Indian perspective; we need to develop diplomatic nuclear blocs with the nuclear states such as Russia, Israel, the United Kingdom and France.

4. Fourthly, we have to come up with the most active and enriched nuclear energy plants to make a productive use of nuclear power. It should be in a planned and phased manner.

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