Lex Scholasticus Journal of Law and Socio-Economic Issues

Theory Of Suicide Given By Durkheim

Piyush Pandey (Student, Chandigarh University)

Suicide is a very complex problem caused by a variety of complex factors. Failure to meet the expectations of a person who may have been implanted at an early age can lead to a variety of suicides that lead to suicide for various reasons. Depression, physical or sexual abuse, depression, financial loss, mental or emotional distress, all of these create feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness and are just a few of the psychological factors that can influence a person's final and distorted decision to commit suicide as a way to end these unbearable feelings. The above, however, is an unfounded analysis that touches on a deeper source of suicide. This paper will attempt to provide a detailed analysis of why people commit suicide by looking primarily at social factors and especially Durkheim’s work. Durkheim describes suicide as "a common form of depression and acute pain, which causes the patient to forget the bonds between people and things about him - happiness is no longer attractive". Durkheim went on to say that "a person cannot follow high standards and obey the law if he does not see anything

In Durkheim's "Interdiction to Suicide: A Study in Sociology", Durkheim expresses his concern for improving social performance. He sees the great problem that socialism is built primarily on the philosophical point of view, and does not answer direct social questions. proposes a method that will give social science a solid foundation and real results. In his book, Durkheim uses these suggestions and shows how community action should be taken, and he strongly affirmed the conclusions that show us how we should be able to deal with social problems. This study was presented in such a way that it is possible to check the validity and accuracy of their definitions and diagrams. Durkheim emphasizes the importance of social science in addition to being a tool for world development, but it is this, in which we see truth as shared truth, incorporated into people who are committed to their truth. In this introductory chapter, he investigates the act of suicide and examines its origins in society by examining suicide rates at various levels of society and linking them to social indicators.

A distinction is made between two types of suicide, the good and the bad. In Durkheim's words suicide is defined as "all cases of death directly or indirectly from the good or bad deeds of the victim himself, who we know will produce this effect". Good performance can be to remove or stop the action. In this case, death comes as a direct result of the action. A bad act can be a situation of living in a burning house or refusing to eat until you are hungry. Death in this case is a direct result of human actions. Durkheim believes that areas with high levels of mental illness and alcohol abuse are not high-risk areas, esquirol wrote that "suicide may appear to be the only condition for us from many different causes and many different types, and this condition is not a disease". Durkheim believed that suicide was not a personal act or personal achievement. It is produced by supernatural forces.

Durkheim studied suicide due to interpersonal relationships and confirmed that suicide is a social phenomenon and confirmed that there are no societies where suicide does not occur. He emphasized that what many people consider to be the result of social unrest is a result of social unrest. The evidence is overwhelming. In addition to the first difference between good or bad suicide habits, Durkheim's research concludes that the marital institution prevents suicide and raises suicide rates for people who have lost their spouses and for those who have divorced ... that one needs to be loved and to have a purpose in life. People who do not see this in their lives are at risk of suicide. The institution of marriage can thus play an important role in suicidal decisions even if the marriage should be properly considered in relation to suicide but not be corrected. While marriage may play a role in preventing suicide by giving love, purpose and stability to one's life, on the other hand, it can be a fragile institution that has been devastated and could even be the cause of suicide. Durkheim also noted that suicide rates are higher during peacetime than during wartime because, during wartime, people must unite to defend their country. These observations may suggest that feelings of patriotism, respect, and intent often lead to suicide. Suicide rates also tend to be higher during the rapid economic transition than the economic crisis as rapid economic changes are sudden and difficult to bear. Durkheim's comments may suggest that people need to work hard in those economic times and go beyond their limits in order to cope with the rapid changes that are causing such feelings of despair, instability, and ingratitude.

According to Durkheim's research, religion may play a role in suicide rates. The data collected by Durkheim suggested that Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than Catholics because Protestants were stupid while Catholics loved society. In other words, Catholics are inclined to receive public support. According to Durkheim people social cohesion and integration play an important role in suicide prevention which makes this type of social cohesion important. Without this kind of communication, people can experience feelings of depression, loneliness and suicide. Durkheim, however, has been shown pointing to both sides of social cohesion-related socialism that shows that when social cohesion is high, people are more likely to commit suicide to avoid being a burden on society. . Two distinct features are therefore identified by Durkheim; that is, social law and social cohesion. Consolidation is defined as "the level at which the feelings of all people are shared" and the regulation refers to "the level of external social ills". According to both civil society organizations, four types of suicides were proposed by Durkheim.

Durkheim distinguished between four types of suicide, the first of which was self-inflicted. Grandmother suicide is considered to be the result of a lack of social cohesion and is perpetrated by people who are socially excluded and adequately integrated into social groups and communities, relying more on themselves than on a set of goals and commands. They are not affiliated with the public or are bound in public or in a group. These types of people find themselves powerless to find their place in society and experience problems in adapting to other groups and are ignored or ignored. Suicide is therefore regarded as a solution to loneliness or extreme deprivation, which leads Durkheim to point out that this type of suicide is more common among single people, widows, divorced, childless and those without social, social or social status.

The second type of suicide identified by Durkheim is a rare suicide. Anomic suicide is considered by Durkheim as the humiliation and frustration that occurs when a person passes through large clothing and ultimately due to a lack of social rules. This type of suicide is especially noticeable in times when society is rapidly changing and leading to uncertainty. It is a suicide pattern caused by the sudden and unexpected change that Durkheim discovers that occurs more frequently during rapid economic changes than during the economic crisis. Durkheim clearly appeals that suicide is more likely to be a problem that affects a person's health than suffering. Voluntary suicide is the third type of suicide that has been diagnosed and according to Durkheim this type of suicide occurs when people or groups are very close and intimate, and come from extreme social integration. The other side of the scale is social cohesion where one is so well integrated with society that they choose to sacrifice their lives to fulfill a particular obligation. Voluntary suicide, which is a complex concept, can continue to be divided into three types: voluntary, dangerous and suicidal. Voluntary suicide brings social pressures that can be well-intentioned. This can be seen in Japan where there is a high rate of suicide among students due to stress and high expectations of others and constant pressure to excel in school exams.

The accompanying depression is often suicidal; suicide from the victim's point of view becomes the answer to liberation from the oppression of what society expects people to be: Unselfish suicide occurs when a person commits suicide to save another life. An example is when a firefighter saves a person from a burning fire but the fireman dies as a result. This is an act of heroism and self-sacrifice. It can be argued that there may be errors in the categories as this type of suicide is strongly associated with stressful and stressful life and such an act would be a form of positive action. Compulsory suicide is intended to address the type of suicide where respect and dignity play a major role. For example, women in the background should commit suicide at the funeral of their husbands after the death of their husbands who are not allowed to live again. If such a person persists in life he loses the respect of the community; in some cases, the general respect for the funeral is denied, in other cases, a life of expectation should await him beyond the grave. Durkheim points out that unselfish suicide is part of a "cohesive spirit" for example when the spirit asks you to do something you are obliged to do and that we, in turn, see places where society puts a lot of pressure and expectations of people can force a person to commit suicide. The last type of suicide is accidental suicide. Durkheim discussed this genre briefly because he was seen as an abnormal figure in the real world. Excessive suicide occurs in social situations where a person experiences global persecution from “extreme law” his or her desires were brutally suppressed with oppressive discipline.

These four types of suicides are categorized by the degree of integration and control of people in their surrounding community. According to Durkheim people commit suicide because of a very high or very low relationship or law, Suicide is a social reality and is due to the power of society. People often commit suicide each time a social situation changes from a state of stability. The organization maintains a "joint" and "legal" stability. Durkheim’s work has been criticized for a number of reasons, for example, his focus on following and behaving, his waiting attitude and human negligence as an actor, his interpretation of suicide rates. Durkheim's view of suicide is thought to be reinforced by controversy rather than fact. However, he has contributed to the development of social science and beyond the complex framework of theory. Ending suicide is not an individual act a public act. People commit suicide because they do not have the support of the community or do not feel loved by their families when a person lacks support in their life and no one cares when they feel worthless and this will lead to depression which can lead to suicide, suicide rates related to social cohesion and society.

References

1. Foundations of Modern Social Theory; Lecture 24 Durkheim on Suicide
https://oyc.yale.edu/sociology/socy-151/lecture-24

What are the types of suicide given by Durkheim?
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-bmcc-sociology/chapter/what-are-the-typ es-of-suicide-given-by-durkheim/

Towards A Suicide Free Society: Identify Suicide Prevention As Public Health Policy Ajai R. Singh and Shakuntala A. Singh
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3400318/

4. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide

5. https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-assets/110612_book_item_110612.pdf

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